Memaparkan catatan dengan label energy. Papar semua catatan
Memaparkan catatan dengan label energy. Papar semua catatan

Ahad, 12 Julai 2020

Yackchal, an ancient refrigerator back in thousand years ago.

Some yackchal is bigger than the other, such as this one in Meybod, Iran. Photo:

Refrigerator use a high amount of electrical energy in order to produce ice. Since the invention of modern refrigerator early 1800's, we never thought that people living in the past were able to have a similar invention in order to keep their food fresh longer.

It's depend on the climate of the area, people learn to preserve their foods in different ways. In the tropic regions, for example, foods are preserved by drying it with salt, or keep it in an acidic solution (turn it into a pickle).

Anyway, long time ago in, middle eastern region such as Persia, they have unique building that called Yackchal, (Persian: یخچال‎ "ice pit"; yakh meaning "ice" and chāl meaning "pit") that works same as refrigerator today. The wonderful thing about this building is, it's using the power of climate and water to trap the cold temperature and store it during the hot summer day.

Yackchal near Kerman, Iran. Photo: wikipedia

The interior of yackchal. Photo:

Even though there are different building that called ice house that used in some countries (Europe or ancient China). Yakhchāl, was built in the areas where the temperature can get really high that require active heat transfer to take place. Compared to modern invention that using a compressor and fan, yakhchāl manipulate the natural energy to produce similar effects.

The construction of yakhchāl was started as soon as 400 BCE. During that time, Persian engineers already able to build this unique building that able to trap the cold temperature during the winter season and retain it until the summer season. It's  not only the shape of the yakhchāl is important, but also the materials used in its construction help it to isolate the heat from get into it.

The wall of yakhchāl is built with unique water-resistant mortar called sarooj, composed of sand, clay, egg whites, lime, goat hair, and ash, that is resistant to heat and at the same time water-impenetrable. While the thickness of the wall will reach up to two meters thick at the base.

Faloodeh, traditional Iranian dessert. Photo:

The most common feature of yakhchāls, is they have access to qanat  (Iranian aqueduct), while sometimes they equipped with a system of bâdgirs (ancient design of windcatchers or wind towers). This additional design help further cool down the temperature to frigid levels during the summer days. So, there are some varieties in its architecture.

The usage of yakhchāls, will allow the ice created in it during the winter to be used throughout the summer. This will help people to keep their foods in it, but also prepare special dessert such as faloodeh, the traditional Persian ice cream.

By mimicking this special architecture, there are many applications can be used in today's world, especially in building more energy efficiency building. Most of our modern inventions relying too much on the usage of electrical energy - that also require to be generated by other sources (such as coals, hydroelectric, solar, wind, thermal and etc.). Imagine if yakhchāl's principal is used instead. How wonderful the future can be?

Sabtu, 26 Ogos 2017

The Earliest Electric Cars

Porsche P1, the first car designed by Ferdinand Porsche.

Not all of us realized that the electric cars were among the earliest cars invented before petrol cars became popular in the early of 20th century. For various reasons the electric cars had been abandoned (perhaps suppressed) to allow petrol engine cars to take over.

The electric cars were pricier, with lower speed limits and shorter range, while petrol cars become more available to the public. Perhaps its demand by the market that make electric cars became less popular in the early 40’s until late 50’s. Still the production of electric cars only in the small quantities – the must be many other factors that caused the situation.

Anyway here we are just want to look at the earliest electric cars produced back then for us to have better understanding why they should become popular again. Some in the list here were the cars produced in large quantities and many others produced in small numbers.

Baker Electric

Was the earliest electric cars produced in large quantities. The first card was a two seater and sold to Thomas Edison as his first car. The nickel-iron batteries used in this car also was invented by Thomas Edison and some of them still can be use until today. By 1907, Baker had seventeen models and the price was getting higher. Baker’s cars also became part of the White House fleet of cars. Anyway by 1913 the company was overtaken in sale by Detroit Electric and, in 1914, merged with fellow Cleveland automaker Rauch and Lang to become Baker, Rauch & Lang.

Studebaker Electric

Studebaker Omnibus one of the electric vehicle produced by Studebaker Brothers.

Studebaker Electric was produced by Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company of South Bend, Indiana. This company produced electric vehicles from 1902 to 1912. Studebaker Electrics was produced in wide variety of body styles included the Stanhope, Victoria, and Surrey. A four-passenger model was introduced in 1904. The production of Studebakers was ended by 1912 as the demand on gasoline engines had increased.

Detroit Electric

An electric car produced by the Anderson Electric Car Company in Detroit, Michigan. The cars were produced from 1907 – 1939 and revived in 2008 to produce modern electric cars by Detroit Electric Holding Ltd. of the Netherlands. There were 13,000 electric cars were produced within 1907 – 1939 by the Anderson Electric Car Company. The sales were increased by increasing price of gasoline during the World War 1. Detroit Electrics were owned by few notable people included Thomas Edison, Lizzie Borden, Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Mamie Eisenhower, and John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Henry Ford bought Model C coupe for her wife Clara Ford.

Porsche P1

Porsche P1 on restoration after 112 years.

The series of gears for Porsche P1.

Porsche P1 was the first car designed by Ferdinand Porsche before he and his son created the company, Porsche. The car was produced in 1898 and resembles a wooden crate or an old horse-drawn carriage even though it is actually an electric powered vehicle. It was equipped with 3 hp electric motors and 5 hp by overcharging it. The car could be driven for three to five hours with the range up to approximately 49 miles. What make Porsche P1 so different was the series of gears with 12-speed controller: six for forward gears, two for reverse and four to brake the car. It was found after 112 years in warehouse in Austria and now on display at the Porsche Museum in Stuttgart, Germany.

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Khamis, 24 Ogos 2017

The Earliest Cars

The earliest steam car know as Cugnot Steam Car.

This will be a very simple post just to have a glance of earliest cars produce before the modern cars were invented. Surprisingly, the earliest cars after the usage of animals such as horse, cow, buffalo, donkey and camel – or if there were many other animals that I missed, was start with power of water; that is steam engine.

Few other surprising things that we never thought are the hydrogen engine that was invented earlier and also the electric cars emerged in the early stage when the modern gasoline engine was invented. So here today, we are more on looking on some of those cars before we are able to come out with full article about it.

If you have something in mind to share so we can focus on it in the next articles.

There are still few working Baker's Electric cars in the world.
The advertising.

Basic steam car.

The bigger size steam car.

The steam car that still survive until today.
Steam car can be flashy too. 1903 White Model C steam car Demi-limousine.

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Khamis, 24 November 2016

Free Bus Service GoKL For All

GoKL buses which commenced operations since 2012.
GoKL free bus service has been initiated since 2012 with only two routes and in 2014 another routes was introduced. Now it has four routes to enable all visitors and residents of Kuala Lumpur to use this free bus service at any time during the operation hours.

GoKL buses operates in major regions in central Kuala Lumpur with a frequency of 5 minutes during peak hours (7.00am - 10.00am & 4.00pm - 8.00pm: weekdays) and 10 minutes at other times make it an efficient transport options for everyone. Indirectly, it allows citizens to use the service and reduce the number of vehicles in the main areas, especially during the peak hours. In fact, it is also effectively reducing the air pollution because the bus GoKL itself using natural gas "Compressed Natural Gas" (CNG) to fueled their busses.

Through the main routes in the City Center.

GoKL provides comfortable ride.
For those who are familiar with this service may have been aware of each of their path. While those of you who are not yet familiar with the GoKL buses routes may download route maps from the link provided. Route is distinguished by certain colors of GoKL buses namely red, blue, green and purple. Each bus route covers certain routes consisting of key locations such as the transport hub KL Sentral, attractions such as Merdeka Square, shopping centers in Bukit Bintang, parks and so on (see route map as a guide).

Red Bus Routes:
  • KL Sentral
  • National museum
  • Masjid Negara
  • Dataran Merdeka
  • Medan Mara
  • Chow Kit (Jln Ipoh)
  • Terminal Jalan Tun Razak
  • Monorail Chow Kit
  • First Complex
  • Dayabumi

Blue Bus routes:
  • Medan Mara
  • Chow Kit (Jln Ipoh)
  • Terminal Jalan Tun Razak
  • HKL (Jln Pahang)
  • Masjid Kg. new
  • Hotel Concorde
  • Pavilion
  • Starhill Gallery
  • star Hill
  • Wisma Boustead
  • Hup Seng Tower
  • Bukit Nanas
  • Dang Wangi LRT
  • AIA tower

Purple Bus Routes:
  • Pavilion
  • Starhill Gallery
  • star Hill
  • Wisma Boustead
  • Wisma MPL
  • Bukit Ceylon
  • City
  • Art market
  • Bangkok Bank
  • Telecom Museum
  • Menara Olympia
  • KL Tower
  • the Weld
  • Pensions Foo Yong

Green Bus routes:
  • Pavilion
  • Starhill Gallery
  • star Hill
  • Menara KH
  • Rohas Wisma Perkasa
  • Grand Hyatt Hotel
  • KL Convention Centre
  • Citibank
  • Menara Atlan
  • KLCC
  • Angkasaraya
  • Concorde Hotel
  • life Centre

Route Map for GoKL buses in Kuala Lumpur.

The service is completely free.
* Please refer to the route map for a route network more clearly.

- Link to the interactive map   >> here <<
- Download Map >> here <<

The bus is free for all citizens and tourists in and out of the reach of Kuala Lumpur City. Each visitor to the city center bus services are encouraged to use this as an effort to save fuel, reduce the number of vehicles on the road and also reduce the pollution in the capital. So if you pay a visit to Kuala Lumpur in the future, do not forget to take advantage of this free service.

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