Memaparkan catatan dengan label wildlife. Papar semua catatan
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Rabu, 7 Mac 2018

More Interesting Things About Flying Fish

Flying fish leaping out of the water in group - Photo by:

Flying fish is the only fish that can fly or actually gliding in the air in order to avoid their predators. Compared to its body size the distance they can achieve from the glide is considered very far. Even though this behaviour help them to run away from the predators, but their predators too have different techniques to catch this super leapers.

Flying fish are family of fish known as Exocoetidae, in the order of Beloniformes class Actinopterygii, with 64 species from 9 genera. They can be found in all of the oceans, mostly in tropical and warm subtropical waters. That’s the other reasons why flying fish is quite popular as part of people’s culture all over the world, from Japan, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, India, South America such as Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. Besides of that, flying fish still can be found in many other areas (even when they are not become part of people consumptions for that areas).

Flying fish has a bigger fins than usual fish. - Photo by: hootersbutwithcats

Flying fish from the side. - Photo by: Thinkstock

Flying fish can achieve great distance when they gliding above the sea. The distance can get farther with the right condition of wave and wind. They can reach up to 4 feet heights and gliding distances up to 655 feet. Sometimes they will continue the jump soon after touching the water to reach longer distances up to 1,312 feet. They also can soar high enough and sometimes get stranded on the decks of ships.

Flying fish become important food source for other bigger species of fish in the sea and when they leap out the water, birds too will take advantage to make them as their food. With their size can reach up to 18 in (45 cm), flying fish is consider moderate in size. Flying fish had been using in many dishes all around the world. One of the popular dishes is the flying fish sashimi from Japan.

Fried flying fish. - Photo by: Josh Berglund
Sashimi - Tobiuo (Flying Fish) - Photo by: 

Fisherman caught them with different ways such as using gillnetting in Japan, Vietnam and China, while using dipnetting in Indonesia and India. There’s also a technique using lights to catch this fish as they are attracted to the lights (especially during the dark moon).

Catch in the mid air by bird. - Photo by:

Chase under the water. - Photo by: YouTube

Even though flying fish is not considered as threaten species, their hunting should be controlled in order to avoid overfishing. Flying fish is important to human especially in some cultures, but they are more important to the nature itself.

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Rabu, 7 Februari 2018

The Wonderful of Birds Migration

Canadian geese on its flight to migrate to safer breeding places - photo: M. Horath

Some birds flying thousands of miles a year migrating between two places across the continent to find suitable places to breed, feed and rising their chicks. Migration happens in so many ways from short distance, medium distance, long distance or some of the birds will stay at the same place throughout the year.

Studies of birds’ migration had been improved with the advancement of technologies available today. Even though today the studies can be conducted properly with satellites tracking devices, the birds’ populations are getting decreases as their natural stopover areas had been used for development by human. Other threats also caused by plastics pollution that killed many birds and also their main sources of foods.

With the proper studies, action can be taken in order to identify the important areas for migratory birds can be protected in order to help them to complete their journey. Most of these areas are wetlands and coastal areas that become their main feeding grounds during their journey across the globe.

Migrating waders in Roebuck Bay, Western Australia - photo: Mdk572

Birds migrate in order to make sure the availability of the food resources. While during the mating seasons they also need to make sure that the areas they select is safe to raise their young. Many migratory birds migrate in large groups, while the short range migratory birds might migrate in smaller numbers. Since these patterns of migration had been going on for long period of times, the ecosystem in both migratory areas are suitable to support their needs.

Among the long-distance migration, Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) known to be the longest migrator by flying from Arctic breeding grounds and the Antarctic each year. Other long-distance migrators include short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), ruff (Philomachus puganx), northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), Amur falcon (Falco amurensis) and many other birds that migrates in order to find better places with plenty of foods.

Migration pattern few species of birds - by: L.Shyamal
Arctic tern migrate the longest distance - photo: Toivo Toivanen & Tiina Toppila

Some birds might migrating in smaller distance - photo: Ken Thomas

Even though harnessing plenty of food resources in the areas where they stays, migratory birds also will enrich it with their faeces to increase the blooming of algae and fertilized the areas to make it suitable for other life to grows by the time they return the following year. This is why the migrating process keep on continuing for long period of times – until we change the environment.

The same thing with medium-distance and short-distance migrators. They also balancing the amount of their food resources. Spreading the seeds, improve the soils, increase the drainage (when they scratching the ground to find food), controlling pest and many other things that birds do.

Mass flocking of bird will enrich the areas - photo: Times of India

Equipped with wings, birds are the animals that can travels further in order to shapes the world compared with fish that can only travel to areas covered with water (and either they are salt-water fish or fresh-water fish). For millions of years birds the only travellers that can go from end to end of the world in order to balance their ecosystem.

Birds’ migrations are one of the best things to observe in nature. From there, there are many things interconnected together with other lives wherever they stop. As the time goes by, everything will keep on flourishing until they come again the following year.

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Sabtu, 16 September 2017

Giant Flying Bird Not Just a Myth

Haast's eagle try to capture it's prey the moa.

Legend about huge flying bird from native stories not just a myth. Few species of giant flying birds did exist not long ago. Even though they were not killed directly by men, but fighting with men over the same food source can be a bad thing too.

Haast’s eagle (Harpagornis moorei) is another giant birds that just extinct few hundred years ago from its native area, New Zealand. This giant bird has remained as a legend for Pouakai and Maori people until the truth was discovered.

The restoration of the skull.

Haast’s eagle became extinct around 1400 AD when their primary food resources had been hunted by the first Māori that came to the South Island of New Zealand. Compared to men that can easily change their food source, the Haast’s eagle had vanished together like their prey the moa.

The size of Haast’s eagle was even larger than the largest living vultures so it also the largest known true raptors. With the size of females were significantly larger than males, the weight of females were estimates to be in the range of 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) and males around 9–12 kg (20–26 lb).

The different in size between the size of Haast's eagle and its closest living relative, the little eagle.

The model of Haast's eagle attacking a moa at Te Papa. 

The main food sourced for the Haast’s eagle was the large flightless bird species known as moa, with body weight can reach up to fifteen times the weight of itself. The eagle was able to kill the giant bird by swooping it at the speeds up to 80 km/h (50 mph).

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Rabu, 15 Februari 2017

Color Changing Animals

The most famous celebrity in the 'camouflage' world.
(Credit: Michel C Milinkovitch)
The ability of some animals that can change their colors whether in dealing with danger or under certain circumstances always catches our intentions. This will helps us to understand more about the nature and even something that can benefits us in the future.

In fact there are many species of animals that has this ability from different groups of families – perhaps some animals more popular than the other. Apart from just changing colors, animal such as cuttlefish (cephalopods) go beyond by changing their physical too. Let us take a closer looks the colors changes behavior across different animals.

The speed of the color changes in these animals are different from few seconds to few weeks; cephalopods family known as the fastest color changer in the animal kingdom. While chameleon will take longer time to change their color. In contrast animals such as ‘ptarmigan’ or ‘snowshoe hare’ will change their colors according to the seasons – with the cycle of the four seasons.

Thus changing colors and physical skills is one of the important characteristics possessed by many living things on earth. Even with different method, the act of converting this physical appearance is an important skill in life, especially for small and medium sized animals to help them to obtain food and avoiding enemies.

Here are few types of animals that can change color;

Chameleons – there are many types of chameleons that can live in the warm areas of Africa, Madagascar, South Europe, and South Africa to Sri Lanka. It varies with the species of small lizard that also can change their colors that know as ‘anoles’ – but in some countries peoples mistakenly thought them as chameleons.

Squid – squid together with the large families of cephalopod species; including octopus, squid and cuttlefish, changing color and resemble the surrounding environment are their specialist. The changes will take effect in very short time with stunning result. Cephalopods use these capabilities for hunting, camouflage and also for interaction between them.

Squid is the most skilled animal for changing color and physical.
Fish – there are types of fishes too that can change their color such as flounder and fish from group of ‘Acanthuridae’ that inhabit the coral reefs. Flounder hunt in shallow water and the ability to their change colors not just help them to hunt but actually to save them from their main predator; an eagles. 

Fish 'flounder' with similar environments.

Bird – not many birds can change their colors but ptarmigan will change their colors according to the seasons. Since ptarmigan not a migrating bird like most other species of birds, adaptation to their environment is very important. The different changes in their surrounding make them easy target for enemies if their colors not change.

Mammals – for some mammals such as snowshoe hare, Alaskan hare, Arctic hare and stoat change their colors as well as ptarmigan to resemble their environment of white winter. This change make is easier for them to hide from the enemies.

Snowshoe hare
Snowshoe hare in winter.
Amphibians – some frogs also have the ability to change colors and the most known is the gray tree frog. Unlike any other frogs, the gray tree frog spent their time on the trees. It will be easier for them to be seen if their colors different from their surroundings.

Insects – apart from the animals mentioned above insects are also having the ability to change their colors. There are several species of spiders and beetles that can change their colors. Insect such as golden tortoise beetle can change their color according to the seasons or when disturbed.

Golden tortoise beetle
The variety of colors 'golden tortoise beetle'.

So now we know there are many animals and insects that capable to change their colors and physicals for various purposes. If previously you only knew some of these animals know we know there are many of them that have these abilities in a wider scope. Although chameleon is the most popular in the world of changing colors, cephalopods families are still the champion in this competition.

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Isnin, 19 Disember 2016

How Pearl Created By Oyster

Pearl in the oyster.
Pearl is a substance that is produced not only by the oyster, but by most living things that are similar to oysters. The process of formation of a natural pearl is rare. So today pearls are produced mainly by the oyster farming industry learned thousands of years ago.

Pearls are actually produced from 'calcium carbonate' as well as materials to produce the shell of the oyster itself. This layer is used to coat materials that entered into the oyster shell that may consist of foreign objects such as sand and other materials. These foreign objects can cause injury to the soft parts of the oyster, so it needs to be overlaid with 'nacre' also known as 'mother of pearl'. This material can be seen on the inside of an oyster shell or other shellfish.

Various types of pearls produced by living things.

Pearls extracted from oysters.
Apart from used to make jewelries, pearls are also used in cosmetics, drugs and even paint. While the pearls available today are mostly produced through the oyster farming industry, to ensure that the oyster producing pearls, the foreign objects are inserted manually into the oyster to be plated with 'nacre' and producing the pearls.

For a long time pearl considered being among the precious materials, even today it can be found at cheaper price, it still requires an oyster to produce it.

Crown produced from natural pearls.

Black pearl and oyster.

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