Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Teknologi Penanaman Padi Di Luar Asean

Penggunaan 'drone' merupakan salah satu teknik pertanian moden yang giat dibangunkan.

Penanaman padi di kawasan negara-negara Asean merupakan tanaman penting kerana ia juga merupakan makanan utama penduduk di kawasan ini. Semenjak sekian lama ianya ditanam teknik penanaman padi tidak banyak berubah dan diusahakan secara kecil-kecilan. Tinjauan teknik penanaman padi di luar kawasan ini amat penting kerana ia dapat memberikan kita banyak pengajaran mengenai teknik penanaman yang lebih menguntungkan kepada para petani.

Penanaman berteraskan teknik yang diwarisi sejak turun-temurun bukanlah sesuatu yang tidak baik, namun bagi menambah pendapatan para petani, teknik penanaman ini perlu berubah mengikut peredaran zaman. Tanpa perubahan, hasil yang dihasilkan bukan sahaja berkurangan malah mungkin suatu masa tanaman penting ini akan mengalami kemusnahan serangan penyakit (yang sentiasa berubah sebagai tindak balas ‘survival’). Sehubungan itu, ini merupakan satu tajuk penting yang perlu dipertimbangkan secara mendalam.

Teknik penanaman padi secara moden yang diamalkan oleh negara-negara membangun amat berbeza. Oleh kerana itu artikel ini akan melihat secara ringkas beberapa perkara penting bagi kita membuat pertimbangan - kerana tidak semuanya dapat dilakukan di negara kita atas pelbagai sebab tertentu, namun begitu ia boleh dijadikan sebagai panduan dalam meningkat produktiviti tanaman penting kepada penduduk Asean ini. Jadi kita akan melihat beberapa proses penting dalam proses penanaman padi sebagai contoh sahaja. Antara pengusaha tanaman padi secara moden yang perlu kita contohi antaranya adalah Jepun, Australia, Amerika, negara-negara Eropah dan China yang giat membangunkan penanaman padi secara moden. Walaupun bukan merupakan negara pengeluar beras utama namun teknik penanaman mereka lebih produktif.

Pengairan

Pengairan merupakan perkara paling penting sebelum memulakan proses penanaman padi yang merupakan sumber utama yang membolehkan padi ditanam dengan baik. Melalui teknologi moden, sumber air boleh diaturkan dengan lebih sempurna sesuai dengan pusingan tanaman dengan lebih kerap (bagi negara-negara Asean yang menerima hujan sepanjang tahun).

Melalui teknologi moden jumlah taburan hujan dan sumber air lebih mudah untuk diuruskan (sekiranya diberikan penekanan yang serius). Kolam-kolam takungan dan tali air lebih mudah dibina berbanding bagi para petani pada zaman dahulu. Jadi pengurusan sumber ini perlu dilakukan dengan lebih serius oleh pihak berwajib dan dimuafakati bersama oleh para petani. Sistem penanaman berkumpulan yang perlu dicontohi adalah seperti yang diamalkan dalam teknik ‘Subak’ di Bali.

Penyediaan Tanah

Penggunaan jentera menjimatkan banyak masa kerja-kerja penyediaan tanah.

Mesin yang lebih kecil bagi sawah yang bersaiz kecil.

Penyediaan tanah merupakan antara proses penting dalam proses penanaman padi sama ada penanaman secara tradisional ataupun penanaman moden. Apa yang membezakan teknik penanaman moden lebih mengutamakan penggunaan jentera yang dapat menjimatkan masa. Melalui penggunaan mesin yang betul masa untuk kerja-kerja penyediaan tanah dapat dijimatkan jauh lebih pantas.

Walaupun penggunaan jentera besar lebih sesuai digunakan pada sawah padi bersaiz besar, terdapat juga jentera penyediaan tanah bagi para petani yang mempunyai sawah bersaiz kecil. Apa yang penting kerja-kerja dapat disiapkan dalam masa yang lebih singkat bagi membolehkan para petani menumpukan perhatian kepada perkara-perkara lain yang penting.

Sememangnya keadaan sawah di sekitar Asean adalah bersaiz kecil dengan bentuk muka bumi yang berbeza seperti sawah yang berada di lereng-lereng bukit. Ia bukanlah satu penghalang bagi penggunaan jentera-jentera moden kerana ianya boleh direka bersesuaian dengan penggunaan yang diperlukan. Apa yang penting, para petani perlu mengenal pasti keperluan mereka dengan jelas bagi memudahkan jentera yang sesuai direka.

Penanaman Benih Padi

Mesin mangalih anak benih padi.

Teknik yang lebih popular bagi petani di US dan Australia - menabur benih padi menggunakan kapal terbang.

Teknik penanaman secara tradisional mengambil masa yang agak lama dengan langkah-langkah penyediaan anak benih yang agak rumit. Walaupun ianya bagus bagi menjamin mutu penghasilan anak-anak padi yang lebih baik, namun masa yang diluangkan untuk proses penyemaian dan mengalih anak padi adalah terlalu banyak. Proses ini oleh diperbaiki dengan pemilihan biji benih yang baik dan keluasan tanaman yang lebih besar.

Walaupun terdapat teknik penanaman moden yang masih lagi mengamalkan teknik tapak semaian dan mengalih menggunakan jentera, namun kaedah semaian padi secara terus menggunakan kapal terbang merupakan teknik yang jauh menjimatkan masa. Melalui kaedah ini kerja-kerja penanam padi dapat dilakukan dalam masa yang jauh lebih singkat untuk keluasan sawah yang jauh lebih besar. Selain daripada penggunaan kapal terbang terdapat juga kaedah yang menggunakan mesin semburan benih padi selain menggunakan ‘drone’ yang lebih kecil berbanding pesawat.

Pembajaan

Pembajaan merupakan antara faktor penting bagi memastikan anak-anak benih padi dapat membesar dengan subur. Penggunaan baja secara organik ataupun menggunakan baja kimia perlu dilakukan dengan betul bagi mengelakkan pembaziran.

Terdapat juga para petani yang melepaskan haiwan ternakan seperti itik ke dalam sawah seperti di Thailand. Itik-itik ini bukan sahaja memakan serangga perosak di sawah, malah najisnya juga akan menjadi baja kepada anak-anak padi yang sedang membesar. Selain itik, pembelaan ikan juga boleh dilakukan di dalam sawah yang masih mengandungi air semasa proses pembesaran anak-anak padi.

Namun begitu penggunaan baja yang tidak dikawal boleh mengakibatkan kesan negatif kepada alam sekitar. Maka dengan itu, para petani perlu lebih aktif dalam mempelajari teknik-teknik mengkaji keperluan tanah dan pembajaan dengan tepat. Bagi memastikan hasil pengeluaran yang berterusan tanggungjawab ini perlu dilakukan bersama-sama kerana keseimbangan alam amat penting kepada para petani.

Penjagaan Makhluk Perosak/Penyakit

Penjagaan makhluk perosak lebih berkait rapat dengan teknik penanaman padi secara moden. Penanaman secara bermusim seperti yang dilakukan di Bali juga merupakan antara kaedah yang dapat mengurangkan masalah gangguan makhluk perosak. Namun begitu kawalan perlu dilakukan secara teliti untuk mengawal penyakit-penyakit lain tanaman padi.

Penyemburan racun serangga menggunakan kapal terbang dan ‘drone’ merupakan kaedah yang lebih sesuai bagi menjimatkan masa. Walaupun penggunaan ‘drone’, masih lagi baru, ia menunjukkan potensi yang lebih baik kerana ia diselenggarakan secara automatik. Teknologi ini mungkin akan lebih baik untuk masa-masa akan datang. Penggunaan ‘drone’ untuk tujuan ini semakin giat digunakan oleh China dalam membangunkan teknologi penanaman padi secara moden. Malah China turut membawa teknologi ini ke negara-negara lain yang berminat.

Penuaian

Mesin penuaian padi yang bersaiz besar.

Mesin penuaian bersaiz kecil.

Beras basmati yang dihasilkan dari California, US.

Teknik penuaian menggunakan mesin juga adalah jauh lebih baik dan pantas. Walaupun teknik penuaian biasa dapat mengurangkan pembaziran padi. Namun bagi tujuan komersial, penuaian dapat dilakukan dengan jauh lebih pantas. Ini kerana proses penuaian secara tradisional merupakan antara proses paling rumit sedangkan proses ini perlu dilakukan dengan pantas bagi mengelakkan kerosakan pada buah padi yang telah masak.

Terdapat pelbagai saiz jentera penuaian mengikut keluasan ladang yang sesuai. Penggunaan mesin yang sesuai adalah penting bagi memastikan ia dapat digunakan dengan berkesan. Melalui penggunaan mesin padi yang dituai terus dileraikan dan siap untuk dihantar ke kilang pemprosesan yang dapat mengurangkan lagi proses-proses kerja seperti mana yang dilakukan dalam proses penuaian tradisional.

Penyimpanan dan Proses Pengilangan Padi

Proses akhir dalam penghasilan beras adalah penyimpanan hasil tuaian padi sebelum beras boleh dijual kepada pengguna. Proses ini dapat memastikan beras yang dihasilkan tahan lebih lama dan tidak rosak. Walaupun ia nampak mudah, namun ia amat penting dalam menjamin kualiti beras yang baik.

Bagi memastikan penanaman padi di negara-negara Asean terus kompetitif dan meningkatkan taraf para petani langkah-langkah yang  sesuai perlu diambil. Para petani sendiri perlulah berani mencuba kaedah-kaedah baru yang sebelum ini belum pernah dicuba. Sememangnya terdapat perbezaan ketara antara penanaman padi yang ditanam secara moden di negara-negara maju, namun begitu sesuai sebagai tanaman penting di negara-negara Asean, tanaman padi perlu dibangunkan semula memandangkan kepentingannya kepada penduduk di kawasan ini.


Penanaman padi moden mengutamakan penjimatan tenaga para petani dan menumpukan kepada proses pengurusan tanaman yang jauh lebih penting. Memandangkan keadaan yang sentiasa berubah dan persaingan yang sentiasa meningkat, maka urusan perancangan dan pentadbiran tanaman adalah jauh lebih penting. Bagi kebanyakan negara-negara di Asean urusan kaedah penanaman ini biasanya adalah di bawah nasihat jabatan-jabatan kerajaan yang perlu lebih aktif dan peka kepada hasil pengeluaran para petani. Maka dengan itu jabatan ini perlu secara aktif membantu meningkatkan kualiti pendapatan para petani sesuai dengan pembangunan semasa.

** Ikuti siri Rice Farming TV di YouTube untuk mempelajari lebih banyak teknik penghasilan beras dari California US;





~ Penghasilan beras dari Australia;




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Monday, November 13, 2017

Best Watches Brands


Watch can be one of the important items for men to appreciate the value of time. Even though some luxury watches can be too expensive for everyone, these watches actually worth for its price. Luxury watches usually are handmade and only available in small quantities. They are durable, made from high quality items and they also considered as “piece of art” that will increase its value by time. Having one of these luxury watches indicate someone success at the same time their determination in his careers.

In recent years more and more luxury watch makers came out with high quality standards for watches. Luxury watches not necessary means it must be expensive by using expensive materials such as gold, platinum and diamonds. To be truly luxurious watches it has to bear special quality for watch that acceptable by watches lovers. Here are some examples of renowned luxury watches - you might have few more choices of yours.

TAG Heuer


Jaeger- LeCoultre


Ulysse Nardin


Girard-Perregaux


Audemars Piguet


Vacheron Constantin


Rolex


Blancpain Le Brassus


Patek Philippe & Co.


Cartier



We admires watches since they are one of mechanical marvels. Its constructions need careful planning, calculations, concentrations, knowledge of materials and some of these watches also have many other functions such as moon indicator and sky chart. As we know, we can get digital watches with more functionality yet it still incomparable to luxury watches as it also piece of art. 


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Saturday, November 11, 2017

More Interesting Things About Saffron

Saffron, delicate plan with higher demand and usage.

It’s not only the highest price of saffron that drive me to find out more about saffron but actually the important role of this unique spices sage throughout human histories. While its important roles will never get lesser, many are start to find out ways to grow them widely even plant it for their own usage.

Spices are usually use only for cooking and some of them also use in medicines and perfume making. Saffron had been used across all of the usage with many other benefits, make it one of the most important spices to many cultures. Here, let see some of the facts about saffron that shared through other website at finedininglover.com

It takes 150 flowers to produce 1 gram of saffron.

Asia

The plant originally came from Asian countries where it is still mainly produced: Iran alone accounts for 90 per cent of the total quantity harvested worldwide. Saffron planted widely in Asia even though it was said it originated from island of Crete.

Bitter

To remove its bitter aftertaste, here is a chef’s tip: press the threads between two aluminium sheets before use. Well, that something not all of us aware of. So this is something that we really need to know to ensure our saffron dishes are palatable.

Curry

Together with turmeric, coriander, cumin, chilli pepper and other spices, it is one of the star ingredients in this Indian spice mix of worldwide fame. The other reason why it flourishing in Asia is the wide usage of spices in curry as they used as many spices that young generation not even know its name anymore.

Dishes

Among the most well-known dishes containing saffron, French bouillabaisse, pilaf and Asian biryani, Spanish paella and, last but not least, saffron cake from Britain are all experiences not to be missed. Instead saffron is easy to use with any dishes by simply added it to any cooking (you will master it very fast with some practices).

Saffron cake from Britain.

Saffron tea, another way to enjoy saffron.

Saffron also used in soap.

Expensive

It takes 80,000 flowers to produce a pound of saffron (453 grams), with a cost in the range of 600 to 2,000 dollars (a pound), prices that make saffron the most expensive spice in the world Flower Saffron stigmas were gathered when the violet-blue flowers open and every flower produces 3, each one of which is about 25-30 millimetres long.

The limited production of saffron makes its price so expensive. In fact the farmer or the workers in saffron production not even making a good life. There is something to do in order to make sure this spice to be available to more with reasonable price by involving more technologies in its production.

Greece

Some writers claim, however, that it comes from Greece, where it was found for the first time on the Island of Crete during the bronze-age.

Over cultivation can change how some species behave. One of the sign is the incapable to reproduce sexually even though it’s flower producing plant (angiosperm). No one exactly know for how long saffron had been cultivated by human.

Harvest

Harvest time is autumn, and the process must be carried out by hand, usually by specialized pickers, almost always women, who detach the 3 stigmas one by one.

The real reason why saffron become so expensive. It’s like the real output is only 0.0001 percent from all the hard works. The only thing that make the production possible is the cheap labour. If there’s no changes soon, it will become more scarce and more manipulation of its market.

Indian flag

The 3-coloured Indian flag is saffron (to represent Hindus), white (for peace) and green (for growth).
Something interesting to know on how important is saffron in some cultures. It’s not only to India, some other cultures shows their respect in different ways.

Jingle§

In the hit song by Donovan entitled "Mellow yellow" the most well-known jingle that everyone sings under their breath is dedicated to this spice: "I'm just mad about Saffron, Saffron's mad about me"

Something we all should find out! Perhaps there are many other art works related to how important is saffron into someone else lives.

Kashmir

Among the varieties hardest to find on the market is the saffron coming from the Indo-Pakistani area of Kashmir. Here they produce the darkest variety in the world which tends towards a purple-brown colour, called Mongra or Lacha.

Another important thing to remember. Saffron is produced by plants. Many factors will affects the quality of saffron according to its geographical planting areas. Not two saffron from different areas have same qualities.

La Mancha

During harvesting, on the Spanish plain of La Mancha it is customary to burn some stigmas on a low fire to diffuse the spicy aroma of saffron in the air.

Saffron not only used for its taste and colouring property but also as incense to improve moods and also as an offering to the long lost ancestors (or spirits).

Make up

Owing to its colouring properties, in ancient times it was used as a cosmetic, as well as for dyeing fabric and leather.

Nuremberg

In the Middle-Ages in Nuremberg, whoever adulterated saffron with the addition of less precious ingredients, was burnt alive.

There’s another code that practiced in Europe Middle-age that known as Safranschou code. There must be many other undocumented practice in order to keep the adulteration of saffron in check. It also shows how important it is to human societies throughout the world.

Opium

To combat drug trafficking, in Afghanistan a project has been set up to replace illegal opium poppy plantations with saffron.

Good moves in order to increase income for farmers. Changing the source of income to more valuable that give more positive result not only for the farmers but also to the saffron market.

Properties

A natural medicinal, it has been used since time immemorial for its antibacterial and antiviral properties, and is excellent for treating stomach-ache, coughs and bronchitis.

While more studies to be carried out, the usage of saffron as remedies had been long in practiced for various purposes.

Qualities

There are international norms (ISO) which define its qualities, dividing saffron into 4 different categories according to its colour, aroma and taste.

The standardization of quality is important even though the qualities of saffron varies by areas it’s produced. These standards will keep some ranges ton ensure the acceptable quality and to control their market values.

Risotto

The most famous dish in the world is saffron risotto, using stock made from bowling fowl, which comes from the Italian city of Milan and is known worldwide.

One of example of popular dish using saffron as one of its ingredients. There are many other dishes that using saffron as one of its important ingredients – even though it’s only used small amount of it.

Sunrise

The stigmas of Crocus sativum (the Latin name for saffron) are only picked at dawn, before its flowers open, in order to preserve its aroma and properties.

Part of the reasons why handling saffron production process is so delicate. Perhaps many other smaller things that only known by the farmers in order to produce good quality of saffron.

Taster

On a par with sommeliers and cheese tasters, saffron too has its specialists, who decree which varieties are the best.

It’s good to know there are some experts in this area for saffron. Without an expert, the quality of saffron might be decreases without anyone noticing it.

Unusual habits

The main ingredient of magic potions in ancient times, it used to be sprinkled between the sheets and brewed in tea to make a man fall in love or to dispel melancholic thoughts.

Something interesting to know. Well not all of us will fall to it, but sure it’s practiced in some societies.

Virgins

In the region of Oxiana, between Iran and Afghanistan, little girls only are allowed to pick saffron. They have to be virgins or under 13, or so the legend goes.

Another reason to make saffron become rarer. No one knows, how this will help with the quality. Anyway to make sure this plants taken care of during all of its production process is the good start to make sure successful production.  

Saffron aroma's and colour improve food's quality.

Saffron risotto, one of popular dishes using saffron.

May it someday more available to everyone.

Wine and spirits

It is possible to buy wines aromatized with saffron, as well as many liqueurs, comprising vodka and gin, which are renowned for their digestive properties.

Yes, saffron had been used for so many purposes, so this is not so surprising.

Xxx

From Cleopatra onwards, it is said that the aroma lingering on the skin after a hot saffron bath is enough to make any lover go mad with desire. Yellow Also named "angel hair" because of its colour, the word saffron derives from Arabic: Za'feran and da asfar, meaning yellow.

Even though it’s no longer practice today that’s something interesting to know. Maybe not all of us agreed that saffron aroma and tint are the sexiest, but still it can be part of the contributor by mix it with other ingredients in perfume making.

Zafferana Etnea, Sicily A very rare variety of saffron is produced in this tiny Italian village, while the most precious saffron in the country comes from the valleys close to the city of L’Aquila in Abruzzo


Well you know there are many other things we need to know about this expensive spices. Sure it’s wonderful that finedininglovers.com had listed some of wonderful things about saffron that we should know. Hopefully someday, saffron will be more available to others same as coffee and tea today.


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Friday, November 10, 2017

Saffron The Most Expensive Spice In The World

Saffron flower with three filaments that produce saffron.

One of the most expensive spices in the world far different from any other spices come from flower known as saffron Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus". It’s not the whole flower can be used as the spices but only small part of it, the tree stigmas that make it harder to produce. Since the demand for it too high, the saffron price can jump as high as $2,000 to $10,000 a pound. By knowing more about this spices it might help us just not knowing the right saffron but also to identify the adulteration that commonly practiced in saffron spice trade.

The saffron crocus, unknown in the wild perhaps by the result of long cultivation by human and probably descend of from Crocus cartwrightianus, native to Greece and Crete (that’s where saffron was thought came from). Since saffron is incapable to reproduce sexually as any other flowering plants – all propagation is done by vegetative multiplication via manual "divide-and-set" of a starter clone or by interspecific hybridisation.

Close up of Saffron flower.

Dried filaments (saffron)

Besides its popularity, saffron had been used since millennial ago with the exact date unknown, among the evidence is the mural, the "Saffron Gatherer", illustrating the gathering of crocuses from the ancient Crete in Greece. The mural mush have been painted long after the first usage of the saffron and perhaps we need to see where the saffron is mostly produce, Iran.

Iran is the most important producer of saffron by producing about 90 - 93% of the world supply. In 2014 250 t (250,000 kg) of saffron were produced worldwide. The other countries that produce saffron includes Spain, Greece, Morocco, India, Afghan, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, China, Egypt,  parts of England, France, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Sweden (Gotland), Turkey (mainly around the town of Safranbolu), the United States (California and Pennsylvania), and Central Africa.

Harvesting flowers in Iran.

The shop selling saffron in Iran

The reasons for its overpriced mainly caused by many of the delicate cares and works all along the producing works involved. The flower itself not easy to taken care of, while blooms for one week of the year, produces about three stamens which must be picked by the hand and dried. It takes 150 flowers to produce a single gram of saffron.

Saffron widely used for its aroma that will enhance many dishes throughout the world. It also give beautiful luminous yellow-orange to foods. Saffron is widely used in Persian, Indian, European, and Arab cuisines. Some of the dishes are jewelled rice and khoresh of Iran, Milanese risotto of Italy, the paella of Spain, the bouillabaisse of France, to the biryani and many other dishes. It also use as tea, incense and in perfume.

While the saffron price is too high, there are an extensive adulteration in saffron market. The adulteration had been practiced since long ago, and continues until modern days. Adulteration was first documented in Europe's Middle Ages, when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code. Among substances used for adulteration of saffron includes beetroot, pomegranate fibres, red-dyed silk fibres, or the saffron crocus's tasteless and odourless yellow stamens. There are many other substances used for adulteration of saffron to manipulate the price and get easy profit.

There are few ways to avoid from buying counterfeited saffron, especially when you are not the regular user of saffron. There are few things to remember before buying saffron especially from unknown supplier;

i) Avoid buying ground saffron as it is hard to detect the ingenuity of the saffron. The other reason is, it will loses its flavour.
ii) Saffron will turn hot water bright yellow few minutes of soaking, not orange.
iii) Saffron will always be expensive, so be careful with cheaper deals.
iv) The threads of saffron are fine and even in size, with a thin yellow tendril on one end and a trumpet-like flute on the other. The yellow part never mix with the red part.

Try avoid buying from online if possible and always be cautious when buying for saffron as it is expensive and people will cheat you in many ways.


There are many usage of saffron even though it is known more as culinary spices. The high demand of it making its cultivation become very important. Somehow somewhere there always be someone trying to produce it in larger quantity in order to get more profit (not necessarily in bad ways) since it has higher value in price. Sure it is important in order to curb manipulation, fraud, adulteration and many other negative effects from high demand of it.






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